Fire Prevention Measures

1

Schools

2

Public Places

3

Hotels & Guest Houses

4

Effects of Fire

5

Types of Fire

6

General Tips

7

Residential buildings

8

High rise Buildings

9

Industrial Buildings

10

Office Buildings

11

Godowns

12

Transportations of Hazardous Material

13

Temporary Structures/Pandals

14

Radiological Emergencies

15

Warning Signs of Chemical Attack

16

Fire Crackers

17

Flame retardant paints/treatment

18

Types of Fire Extinguisher

19

Fire Resistant Doors

Fire Safety measures in schools

Do's

  • Minimum 2 exit doors of 1.5 meters width for each class room.
  • Minimum 2 seperate staircases of 1.5 meters width for each floor.

  • Fire dampers in the A.C ducts for central A.C. Buildings.

  • 2 no's 5kg dry powder extinguishers for laboratory and 2 no's for gas bank, 2 no's of 9 liters water type extinguishers for every 600 sq meters area with minimum 4 no's in each floor, one 4.5 kg co2 extinguisher for electrical mains.

  • Hose Reel,Wet Riser,Down Comer, Yard Hydrant, Automatic Sprinklers, Fire Alarm, Water Storage Tank, Fire Pumps as per requirement and advice of fire department

  • Emergency lighting with battery backup for 1.5 hours in corridors and staircases.

  • Evacuation drill to be conducted in each term.

  • Training in first aid fire fighting and emergency procedures to all staff.

  • Cooking should be done in segregated safe place away from class rooms.

  • Portable fire extinguisher and dry sand buckets should be provided at a travel distance of every 22.5 meters.

  • Underground/Overhead tank water storage tanks exclusively for fire fighting should be provided.

  • School emergency plan should be made in consultation with local fire station.

  • Good house keeping should be ensured.

  • Cooking should be done in segregated safe place away from class rooms.

 

Don'ts

  • No temporary structure .

  • Travel distance for doors and staircases not to exceed 22.5 meters.

  • No staircases around lift lobby.

  • Thatch and other combustible material should not be used for construction.

Fire Safety in Public Places

Do's

  • Places where fifty or more persons assemble for recreation,social,religious other similiar purposes may be termed as public places. Examples Cinema's, Restaurants,Convention halls,Stadiums, Clubs, Dance Halls, Places of Worships, Bus/Train terminals.

  • Buildings should be designed for a high occupant load.

  • The minimum height of assembly hall should be 3.6 meters and minimum width of corridors/staircase 2 meters.

  • Public places with more than 500sq meters per floor should have minimum 2 staircases of enclosed type and one of them should be on external wall.

  • Material used for upholstery, interior decoration, seats and carpets should be fire retardant.

  • Dry type transformers are referred in public places.

  • Temporary electrical wiring should be avoided.

  • Pedestal fans if installed should be connected to 3 pin plug only.

  • Fire Safety systems like Hose Reels,Wet Risers,Automatic and Manual Fire Alarm Systems,Sprinklers,Public Address System etc should be installed as per N.B.C.

  • For large assembly halls with more than 1000 seating capacity and those in High Rise Buildings , Automatic Sprinklers and Yard Hydrant should be provided.

  • Water storage tank for Fire fighting 50000 liters capacity(Non-High Rise ) and 1 lakh litres (for High-Rise) should be provided.

  • One water type extinguisher of 9 liters with minimum 2 per floor should be provided. Travel distance should not exceed 25 meters

  • Sufficient number of exits for safe evacuation within 2.5 minutes to be provided.

  • Travel distance for exits not to exceed 30 meters.

  • Exit doors should open outwards.

  • Emergency lighting with battery backup upto 2 hours and auto glow signage should be provided in the escape route.

  • Exits should be kept unlocked during period of assembly.

  • Fire Safety tips of Do's and Don'ts should be displayed prominently.

  • If seats are more than 300,fasten them to floor.

  • Fire exit staircases should be maintained free of obstructions.

  • Employees should be trained in emergency procedures.

  • Fire drills should be conducted once in every 3 months.

  • Emergency numbers should be prominently displayed.

Don'ts

  • Smoking should be strictly prohibited.

  • Aisles & escapes should not be blocked with extra chairs.

Fire Safety in Public Places

Do's

  • Places where fifty or more persons assemble for recreation,social,religious other similiar purposes may be termed as public places. Examples Cinema's, Restaurants,Convention halls,Stadiums, Clubs, Dance Halls, Places of Worships, Bus/Train terminals.

  • Buildings should be designed for a high occupant load.

  • The minimum height of assembly hall should be 3.6 meters and minimum width of corridors/staircase 2 meters.

  • Public places with more than 500sq meters per floor should have minimum 2 staircases of enclosed type and one of them should be on external wall.

  • Material used for upholstery, interior decoration, seats and carpets should be fire retardant.

  • Dry type transformers are referred in public places.

  • Temporary electrical wiring should be avoided.

  • Pedestal fans if installed should be connected to 3 pin plug only.

  • Fire Safety systems like Hose Reels,Wet Risers,Automatic and Manual Fire Alarm Systems,Sprinklers,Public Address System etc should be installed as per N.B.C.

  • For large assembly halls with more than 1000 seating capacity and those in High Rise Buildings , Automatic Sprinklers and Yard Hydrant should be provided.

  • Water storage tank for Fire fighting 50000 liters capacity(Non-High Rise ) and 1 lakh litres (for High-Rise) should be provided.

  • One water type extinguisher of 9 liters with minimum 2 per floor should be provided. Travel distance should not exceed 25 meters

  • Sufficient number of exits for safe evacuation within 2.5 minutes to be provided.

  • Travel distance for exits not to exceed 30 meters.

  • Exit doors should open outwards.

  • Emergency lighting with battery backup upto 2 hours and auto glow signage should be provided in the escape route.

  • Exits should be kept unlocked during period of assembly.

  • Fire Safety tips of Do's and Don'ts should be displayed prominently.

  • If seats are more than 300,fasten them to floor.

  • Fire exit staircases should be maintained free of obstructions.

  • Employees should be trained in emergency procedures.

  • Fire drills should be conducted once in every 3 months.

  • Emergency numbers should be prominently displayed.

Don'ts

  • Smoking should be strictly prohibited.

  • Aisles & escapes should not be blocked with extra chairs.

 

Hotels

Do’s

  • All electrical equipment should be in conformity with relevant Indian Standards.
  • Air Conditioning should be linked with Fire Detection System.
  • Transformers, air-conditioning and boilers should be in separate fire resisting room.
  •  All Vertical shafts/ducts for drainage pipes, plumbing, wiring and cabling etc, should be sealed at each floor. 
  •  Fire detection, alarm and extinguishing systems should be provided.
  •  A stand-by emergency power supply should be provided to cater to fire water pump, fire lifts and other emergency systems for fire fighting.
  • Train all employees in fire prevention, fire fighting and emergency response
  • Conduct periodic emergency drills.

Don’ts

  • Never smoke in bed, use ashtray.
  • Incase of fire Don’t panic. Sound the Alarm.
  • Incase of fire never use elevators.
  • Never re-enter the building incase of fire

 

Residential buildings

Do’s

  • Keep your house neat and clean.

  • Keep matches/lighters and crackers away from children.

  • Handle fire crackers with care during diwali.

  • Use metal ashtrays while smoking and dispose off matches /used cigarretes in it.

  • Papers ,clothes and flammable liquids should be kept away from heaters/stoves/open choollahs.

  • Keep the escape routes/staircases free of any obstructions.

  • Keep the emergency telephone numbers handy.

  • Use only one electrical appliance in one socket.

  • Use ISI mark stoves, immersion heaters, electrical switches.

  • Switch off mains when you go on vacation

  • Use 3 pin plug and heavily insulated cords for all movable electrical equipment.

  • Keep LPG stoves on raised platform and well ventilated place

  • Turn off the cylinder valve and burner knob of the gas stove after cooking.

  • Keep a bucket of water handy while using fireworks.

  • In case of burn injuries due to fire, pour water over burn till pain settles down.

  • Incase of Fire stop, drop and roll and also cover your face with your hands.

  • Avoid loose clothing while cooking

  • Unplug Kettles, frying pans and other appliances when not in use.

  • Mount dry chemical extinguisher to the wall in the Kitchen, which should be far from stove.

  • Install smoke alarm in every room.

 

Don’ts

  • Do not meddle with electric fixtures like plugs.wires,switches and sockets..

  • Don't allow children to play in the kitchen.

  • Never place oil lamps or agarbattis or candles on the floor or near flammable material.

  • Never light fire works under confinement in a metal container.

  • Never light flower pots while holding them.

  • Don’t wear loose, flowing clothes while cooking, specially avoid synthetic clothing

  • Do not hide behind furniture or in toilets or run up to the terrace in times of fire.

  • Do not keep crackers in your pocket or use fireworks inside the house.

  • Never reach for any article over a fire.

  • Never leave open fire unattended.

  • Do not refill a burning stove.

  • Do not dispose off lighted cigarette buds carelessly.

  • Do not smoke in bed.

  • Do not refill the oil stoves when burning.

  • Do not plug too many electrical appliances in one socket.

  • Do not make unauthorized electrical connections and over load the electrical points

  • Do not leave spray cans on or near heaters or in direct sunlight as they could explode.

  • Do not throw matches, cigarette buds or pipe ash into waste pipe baskets.

  • Don’t wear loose, flowing clothes while cooking, specially avoid synthetic clothing

  • Do not hide behind furniture or in toilets or run up to the terrace in times of fire.

  • Do not keep crackers in your pocket or use fireworks inside the house.

  • Never reach for any article over a fire.

  • Do not refill a burning stove.

  • Do not misuse fire service by false calls as it delays the service to really needy

 

Effects of Fire

  • Fire may damage life and property

  • The major outcomes of fire are heat and smoke.

  • Heat generates due to burning of combustible material.

  • The intensity of heat depends upon fire-load, calorific-value and rate of burning.

  • In contrast to low height buildings, the heat produced does not escape easily into the atmosphere in high rise buildings, thereby increasing the temperature of the structure

  • In many Fire incidents, major cause of deaths is inhalation of smoke and other toxic gases.

 

Types of Fire

Fires are classified according to the type of fuel that is burning.

 

  The four different fire classifications are

 

Class A

 

(Wood, Paper, Cloth, Trash, Plastic) 
Solid Combustible material that are not metals
This type of fire generally leaves an ash.

 

Class B

 

(Flammable liquids like petrol,diesel,kerosene,oilsl, grease, acetone)
Any non-metal in a liquid state on fire This type of fire involves materials that boil or bubble.

 

Class C

 

(Electrical: Energized electrical equipment)
This type of fire generally deals with an electrical current.

 

Class D

 

(Metals: Sodium, Aluminum, Potassium, Magnesium,Zirconium)

High rise Buildings

Do’s:

  • Good house keeping must be ensured.

  • Switch off the electrical mains before fighting the fire

  • Use staircases only for evacuation.

  • Make sure to close the exit door while getting out of fire zones.

  • Switches and fuses should conform to correct rating of circuit.

  • Welding /Cutting jobs should be carried out under strict supervision.

  • Keep means of escape clear of obstructions.

  • Impart fire fighting training to occupants.

  • Conduct fire/evacuation drills regularly.

  • Always use ashtray while smoking.

  • All receptacles should be emptied regularly.

  • Faulty electrical appliances should be repaired/replaced immediately.

  • Keep smoke/fire check doors closed.

  • Keep means of escape clear of obstructions.

  • Emergency organisation must be setup.

Don’ts

  • Do not use lifts intimes of fire.

  • Do not dispose off lighted cigarette buds carelessly.

  • Do not paint fire detector/sprinkler heads

  • Do not plug too many electrical appliances in one socket.

  • Do not make unauthorized electrical connections and over load the electrical points

  • Do not store inflammable materials inside the building.

  • Do not refill the oil stoves when burning.

  • Do not store LPG more than required quantity.

  • Do not obstruct fire exit staircases with old/unused furniture.

  • Do not return to collect valuables incase of outbreak of fire.


During Fire Emergencies

Do’s:

  • Keep the doors and windows shut to prevent entry of smoke.

  • Evacuate without panic from the nearest exit.

  • If fire is in upper floor, go to lower floor/open ground.

  • Crawl on the floor if smoke obscures visibility.

  • Request Fire service help by dialling 101 or by messenger or by intimating nearest police station.

Dont’s:

  • Do not use lifts.

  • Do not reenter the building to collect valuables

  • Do not hide in toilets/store rooms.

Office Buildings

Do’s

  • Practice good housekeeping. All thrash cans and recycling containers should be emptied on regular basis.

  • Ensure that office and storage closets are free of excess combustible material.

  • Keep heat producing equipment away from anything that might burn

  • Ensure that emergency numbers are posted on your telephone.

  • Ensure that fire equipment is maintained in working condition.

  • Notify anyone in the immediate area and fire brigade incase of fire.

  • Activate the nearest fire alarm



Don’ts

  • Do not panic remain calm.

  • Do not use elevators. Always use staircases.

  • Do not go back for your things if you are asked to leave

 

Godowns

Do’s

  • Main causes of fires in godowns are careless smoking,spontaneous ignition,naked flames ,storage of incompatable hazardous goods,hot works,spray painting etc.

  • Ascertain the fire hazards of materials before storage

  • Ensure that safe floor load limits given in IS 875:1964 are not exceeded.

  • Use non-combustible platforms for water damage susceptible goods.

  • Ensure adequate ventilation where flammables are stored/handled.

  • Store incompatable chemicals seperately.

  • Keep flammable materials away from ignition sources.

  • Use safe containers with lid for flammable solvent's storage

  • Seggregate the material as hazardous, extra hazardous and non-hazardous as per IS :1641:1960. and store seperately. Store noxious chemicals , which emit heavy smoke and noxious gases in well-ventilated areas.

  • Store gas cylinders having explosive risk in detached buildings.

  • Give due regard to characteristics of materials when storing.

  • Maintain safe and stable stacking heights.

  • Stack height should not exceed 4.5 meters and minimum one meter gap to be maintained between the top of stack and ceiling.

  • Keep storage areas dry, clean and well ventilated

  • Ensure high house keeping standards and avoid spillage.

  • Remove weeds in the compound regularly.

  • Inspect godown premises thoroughly before it is closed.

  • Ensure label on every chemical container.

  • Follow instructions of safe storage and handling as per material safety data sheets.

  • Follow approved procedures for materials handling and moment .

  • Ensure electrical grounding and bonding pouring/dispensing/transferring flammable liquids.

  • Follow hot work permit instructions when weilding/cutting.

  • Use flame proof forklift.where highly inflammable goods are stored/handled.

  • Provide flame arrestors for petrol driven motors.

  • Carry suitable fire extinguishers for fuel operated material handling systems.

  • Locate all switches and control equipments outside godown.

  • Give minimum 75 cms clearance for electrical fittings.

  • Call qualified electrician for any electrical repairs.

  • Strictly prohibit smoking in storage areas.

  • Avoid reuse of empty chemical containers.

  • No plan of action for spillage/leakage/fire.

  • Provide emergency lighting for fire exits.

  • Keep emergency telephone numbers handy.

  • Know how to use fire extinguishers and other fire safety equipment.

  • Keep storage areas dry, clean and well ventilated

  • Conduct fire drills regularly.

  • Ensure trim working of fire equipment and keep them accessible.


Don’ts

  • Don’t store contaminating commodities like poison, dyes etc along with foodstuff storage

  • Don’t drag containers labeled FLAMMABLE

  • Don’t smoke in places other than permitted zones

  • Avoid re-use of empty chemical containers

  • Don't overload electrical connections and avoid temporary wiring.

  • Don't allow use of naked flames for weilding,cutting and spray painting except in detached buildings

 Transportations of Hazardous Material

Do’s

  • Driver should be made aware of the risks, precautions of the goods.

  • Carry first aid, antidotes, fire extinguisher and other safety equipment in the carriage.

  • Ensure that exhaust pipe is fitted with spark arrestor.

  • Load the filled barrels, drums and other containers in upright position

  • Don’t carry passengers, fire and lights on the goods carriage

Don’ts

  • Don’t overfill the tanker

  • Don’t smoke near the vehicle carrying hazardous goods.

  • Don’t carry passengers, fire and lights on the goods carriage.

 

 Temporary Structures/Pandals

Do’s

  • Height of the ceiling of pandal/temporary structure shouldn't be more than 3 meters

  • Margins of atleast 3 meters should be kept on all sides-away from the existing building.

  • Structure should be erected atleast 15 meters away from electric substations, furnaces.

  • Exits on all sides of the Pandal shall be kept sufficiently wide(minimum 1.5 meters).

  • Fire extinguishers/water buckets must be kept at strategic points inside and outside pandal

  • Standby emergency light should be provided.

  • Kitchens must be segregated by G.I. Sheet walls.

  • Fire retardant treatment should be given to curtains and clothes.

  • Keep away all ignition sources from the pandals.

  • Keep adequate water for fire fighting..

  • Display exit signs.

  • Provide central ,site and cross gangways(1.5 meter wide)

Don’ts

  • No synthetic material /ropes should be used.

  • No structure should be erected underneath live electrical lines.

  • No combustible straw , sheaving, flammable,explosive chemicals to be stored inside the pandals

  • No display of fireworks /open flames of any kind shall be permitted near the pandals.

  • Do not use halogen lamps near the ceiling.

  • Do not use naked joint wires/overload circuits.

  • No smoking to be pemitted inside pandals.

 

Radiological Emergencies

Do’s

  • Keep calm, do not panic

  • Listen to the radio and respect the suggested rules of behavior.

  • Stay in your home by closing all the exterior openings.

  • If you are outside, close your mouth and nose with a wet cloth and also try to take shelter.

  • Eat only the food stored inside the home.

  • If the nuclear explosion occurs , hide behind the solid wall if you are outside or else lie down in a ditch or behind the wall by protecting your face with your arms

Don’ts

  • Do not use the telephone/cell phone as this overloads the system

  • Do not slow down the emergency vehicles by going into stricken areas.

  • Do not open even ventilators also.

  • Do not switch on air conditioners and heaters.

 

Warning signs of an Chemical or Biological attack

  • Droplets of oily film on surfaces

  • Unusual dead or dying animals in the area

  • Unusual liquid sprays or vapors

  • Unexplained odours( smell of bitter almonds, peach, green grass)

  • Unusual or unauthorized spraying in the area

  • Victims displaying symptoms of nausea, difficulty breathing, convulsions, disorientation

  • Low-lying clouds or fog unrelated to weather

 

Fire Crackers

 

 

Do’s

  • Carefully read the instructions and precautions of Fire Works

  • Always have a bucket of water ready while igniting fireworks.

  • Wet the fireworks that continue to fire after discharging.

  • Always immerse fireworks like sparkles, rockets into the bucket of water

  • Light fireworks at arm’s length, standing back and keeping your face away.

  • Close the windows and openings properly to prevent ingress of lighted flying crackers.

  • Use only standard make fire crackers.

  • Elders supervision is must while children play fire crackers.

  • It is safe to play fire crackers in open grounds and open places.

  • Rockets , flower pots and other flying crackers should not be displayed near thatched houses and hay stacks .

  • Fire crackers like sparklers should be lighted away from the body.

  • Wear tight cotton clothes while playing fire crackers.

  • Wear chapples,spectacles (if required).

  • Show concern for old age people , children and women while playing crackers.

  • If you receive burns accidently pour cold water until pain subsides and consult a doctor.

  • Seek assistance of fire service by dialling 101 if required.

Don’ts

  • Never allow children to light firework in absence of elders.

  • Don’t relight fireworks that fail to ignite.

  • Do not light fire works very close to the buildings.

  • Do not leave lighted oil lamps, agarbattis or candles on the floor or near combustible material.

  • Do not store scrap/combustible material in and around the building.

  • Do not allow fire crackers display inside the house.

  • Do not hold flower pots,atom bombs,ladis in hand and display.

  • Do not allow children near dangerous and high sounding fire crackers.

  • Do not display fire crackers near the crackers shop.

  • Do not throw lighted fire crackers indiscriminately into the open.

Flame Retardant Paints/Treatment

Paint related fire treatment products offer several advantages over untreated wood and other combustible materials. Few of them are

  • They do not ignite or contribute to the spread of flame

  • Some, In tumescent coatings, will insulate the surface from the heat for a short period of time by swelling up and expanding when exposed to flame, producing a heat resistant charred surface.

 

Types of Fire Extinguisher

  The three most common types of Fire Extinguishers are

Water(Air Pressurized Water)

 

This extinguisher is designed for Class A (wood, paper, cloth) fires only.

Carbon Dioxide(Co2)

 

This extinguisher is designed for Class B and C. 
(flammable liquid and electrical) fires only.

Dry Chemical(ABC,BC,DC)

 

DC" short for "dry chem"

“ABC" indicating that they are designed to extinguish class A,B,and C   fires.

“BC” indicating that they are designed to extinguish class B and C fires

 

 

Fire Resistant Doors

  • A fire resistant door is thicker than other type of doors.

  • They contain heavy grade chipboard or a heavy core of fire resisting compressed straw.

  • They can resist the fire upto 30 - 60 minutes.

  • They are usually flush robust doors that should always be fitted into a hardwood one-piece

  • rebated frame and fitted with an automatic door closer.

  • If a glass panel is preferred, Georgian wired glass must be used.

  • Building regulations require fire resistant doors when a door leads into an adjoining garage.

  • and when a door opens into the loft room

 

 

 

 

 

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